The Name Joshua and also the Name Christ were known from the Beginning, and were
honored by the Inspired Prophets. ( Church History, Book I, Chapter 3 by Eusebius Pamphilius, First Published in 313AD )
1. It is now the proper place to show that the very name Joshua and also the name Christ were
honored by the ancient prophets beloved of God.
2. Moses was the first to make known the name of Christ as a name especially august and
glorious. When he delivered types and symbols of heavenly things, and mysterious images, in
accordance with the oracle which said to him, 'Look that thou make all things according to the
pattern which was shown thee in the mount,' he consecrated a man high priest of God, in so far
as that was possible, and him he called Christ. And thus to this dignity of the high priesthood,
which in his opinion surpassed the most honorable position among men, he attached for the sake
of honor and glory the name of Christ.
3. He knew so well that in Christ was something divine. And the same one foreseeing, under
the influence of the divine Spirit, the name Joshua, dignified it also with a certain distinguished
privilege. For the name of Joshua, which had never been uttered among men before the time of
Moses, he applied first and only to the one who he knew would receive after his death, again as a
type and symbol, the supreme command.
4. His successor, therefore, who had not hitherto borne the name Joshua, but had been called by
another name, Hoshea, which had been given him by his parents, he now called Joshua, bestowing
the name upon him as a gift of honor, far greater than any kingly diadem. For Joshua himself, the
son of Nun, bore a resemblance to our Saviour in the fact that he alone, after Moses and after the
completion of the symbolical worship which had been transmitted by him, succeeded to the
government of the true and pure religion.
5. Thus Moses bestowed the name of our Saviour, Joshua Christ, as a mark of the highest honor,
upon the two men who in his time surpassed all the rest of the people in virtue and glory; namely,
upon the high priest and upon his own successor in the government.
6. And the prophets that came after also clearly foretold Christ by name, predicting at the same
time the plots which the Jewish people would form against him, and the calling of the nations
through him. Jeremiah, for instance, speaks as follows: 'The Spirit before our face, Christ the Lord,
was taken in their destructions; of whom we said, under his shadow we shall live among the
nations.' And David, in perplexity, says, 'Why did the nations rage and the people imagine vain
things? The kings of the earth set themselves in array, and the rulers were gathered together against
the Lord and against his Christ'; to which he adds, in the person of Christ himself, 'The Lord
said unto me, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and I will give thee the
nations for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession.'
7. And not only those who were honored with the high priesthood, and who for the sake of the
symbol were anointed with especially prepared oil, were adorned with the name of Christ among
the Hebrews, but also the kings whom the prophets anointed under the influence of the divine Spirit,
and thus constituted, as it were, typical Christs. For they also bore in their own persons types of
the royal and sovereign power of the true and only Christ, the divine Word who ruleth over all.
8. And we have been told also that certain of the prophets themselves became, by the act of
anointing, Christs in type, so that all these have reference to the true Christ, the divinely inspired
and heavenly Word, who is the only high priest of all, and the only King of every creature, and the
Father's only supreme prophet of prophets.
9. And a proof of this is that no one of those who were of old symbolically anointed, whether
priests, or kings, or prophets, possessed so great a power of inspired virtue as was exhibited by our
Saviour and Lord Joshua, the true and only Christ.
10. None of them at least, however superior in dignity and honor they may have been for many
generations among their own people, ever gave to their followers the name of Christians from their
own typical name of Christ. Neither was divine honor ever rendered to any one of them by their
subjects; nor after their death was the disposition of their followers such that they were ready to
die for the one whom they honored. And never did so great a commotion arise among all the nations
of the earth in respect to any one of that age; for the mere symbol could not act with such power
among them as the truth itself which was exhibited by our Saviour.
11. He, although he received no symbols and types of high priesthood from any one, although
he was not born of a race of priests, although he was not elevated to a kingdom by military guards,
although he was not a prophet like those of old, although he obtained no honor nor pre-eminence
among the Jews, nevertheless was adorned by the Father with all, if not with the symbols, yet with
the truth itself.
12. And therefore, although he did not possess like honors with those whom we have mentioned,
he is called Christ more than all of them. And as himself the true and only Christ of God, he has
filled the whole earth with the truly august and sacred name of Christians, committing to his
followers no longer types and images, but the uncovered virtues themselves, and a heavenly life
in the very doctrines of truth.
13. And he was not anointed with oil prepared from material substances, but, as befits divinity,
with the divine Spirit himself, by participation in the unbegotten deity of the Father. And this is
taught also again by Isaiah, who exclaims, as if in the person of Christ himself, 'The Spirit of the
Lord is upon me; therefore hath he anointed me. He hath sent me to preach the Gospel to the poor,
to proclaim deliverance to captives, and recovery of sight to the blind.'
14. And not only Isaiah, but also David addresses him, saying, 'Thy throne, O God, is forever
and ever. A scepter of equity is the scepter of thy kingdom. Thou hast loved righteousness and hast
hated iniquity. Therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy
fellows.' Here the Scripture calls him God in the first verse, in the second it honors him with a
15. Then a little farther on, after the divine and royal power, it represents him in the third place
as having become Christ, being anointed not with oil made of material substances, but with the
divine oil of gladness. It thus indicates his especial honor, far superior to and different from that
of those who, as types, were of old anointed in a more material way.
16. And elsewhere the same writer speaks of him as follows: 'The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit
thou at my right hand until I make thine enemies thy footstool'; and, 'Out of the womb, before
the morning star, have I begotten thee. The Lord hath sworn and he will not repent. Thou art a priest
forever after the order of Melchizedec.'
17. But this Melchizedec is introduced in the Holy Scriptures as a priest of the most high God,
not consecrated by any anointing oil, especially prepared, and not even belonging by descent to
the priesthood of the Jews. Wherefore after his order, but not after the order of the others, who
received symbols and types, was our Saviour proclaimed, with an appeal to an oath, Christ and
18. History, therefore, does not relate that he was anointed corporeally by the Jews, nor that he
belonged to the lineage of priests, but that he came into existence from God himself before the
morning star, that is before the organization of the world, and that he obtained an immortal and
undecaying priesthood for eternal ages.
19. But it is a great and convincing proof of his incorporeal and divine unction that he alone of
all those who have ever existed is even to the present day called Christ by all men throughout the
world, and is confessed and witnessed to under this name, and is commemorated both by Greeks
and Barbarians and even to this day is honored as a King by his followers throughout the world,
and is admired as more than a prophet, and is glorified as the true and only high priest of God.
And besides all this, as the pre-existent Word of God, called into being before all ages, he has
received august honor from the Father, and is worshiped as God.
20. But most wonderful of all is the fact that we who have consecrated ourselves to him, honor
him not only with our voices and with the sound of words, but also with complete elevation of soul,
so that we choose to give testimony unto him rather than to preserve our own lives.
21. I have of necessity prefaced my history with these matters in order that no one, judging
from the date of his incarnation, may think that our Saviour and Lord Joshua, the Christ, has but
recently come into being.